Amerikaanske Unôfhinklikheidsferklearring

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Franklin, Jefferson, Adams, Livingston, en Sherman by it opstellen fan de ferklearring yn 1776. Gravuere nei Alonzo Chappel.
Unôfhinklikensferklearring

De Amerikaanske Unôfhinklikensferklearring of Declaration of Independence is de ûnôfhinklikensferklearring fan de Feriene Steaten dy't foar in grut part opsteld waard troch Thomas Jefferson en dy't troch fertsjintwurdigers fan 12 fan de doe 13 Amerikaanske koloanjes oannommen waard op 4 july 1776. De steat New York sleat him oan by de ferklearring op 9 july 1776. De ferklearring hold de ûnôfhinklikens fan de Britske monargy yn. Dy ûnôfhinklikens waard yn de ferklearring rjochtfeardige troch in tal "wierheden" dy't de ûndertekeners "fanselssprekkend" fûnen: dat alle minsken gelyk skepen waarden, dat se troch harren skepper útrist binne mei bepaalde rjochten en dat ûnder dy rjochten falt: it rjocht op libben, op frijheid en op it neistribjen fan gelok. Under de ferklearring steane 56 hantekeningen. Ien dêrfan is fan John Hankock. Hy skreaun, sa giet it ferhaal, syn hantekening sa grut, dat de Britske Kening him sûnder bril lêze kinne soe.

Tusken 1775 en 1783 wie de Amerikaanske Unôfhinklikenskriich oan de gong yn de trettjin koloanjes oan de eastkust fan Amearika. De kriich waard fierd tusken de Amerikaanske ynwenners fan dizze koloanjes en de doe noch hearskjende Britten. De reden foar de kriich wie de wil fan de Amerikanen om ûnôfhinklik te wurden.

Op 4 july fiere de Amerikanen Unôfhinklikensdei (Independence Day). Dit is de wichtichste nasjonale feestdei fan de Feriene Steaten.

De orizjinele tekst[bewurkje seksje | boarne bewurkje]

De ynlieding:

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. – That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, – That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. – Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

[Hjir folget in list mei oantigings tsjin de kening fan Ingelân, folge troch de folgjende konklúzje]

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Slavernij[bewurkje seksje | boarne bewurkje]

Under de oantigings dy't de tekst tsjin de Ingelske kening makket, wie oarspronklik ek in opmerking oer de slavehannel, wêrtsjin't de kening noait optreden hat. Dizze passaazje, dy't de úteinlike tekst net helle hat, wurdt tradisjoneel lêzen as it fersmiten fan de slavernij.

In oare fisy is lykwols dat Jefferson, dy't sels oant de ein fan syn libben hûnderten slaven besiet, bang wie dat de slavepopulaasje sa grut wurde soe dat dizze rjochtleaze groep, 20% fan de befolking (60% in guon súdlike koloanjes), simpelwei net mear yn de hân holden wurde koe.

Undertekeners[bewurkje seksje | boarne bewurkje]

Hjir de 56 ûndertekeners dy't harren steat fertsjinwurdigen (fan it noarden nei it suden):

Steat ûndertekeners
Nij-Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton
Massachusetts: Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Konettikut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
Nij-Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Delaware: George Read, Caesar Rodney, Thomas McKean
Marylân: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Firginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison V, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
Noard-Karolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
Súd-Karolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

Boarnen, noaten en referinsjes[boarne bewurkje]

Boarnen, noaten en/as referinsjes:
  • Howard Zinn (2003). A People's History of the United States. HarperCollins.