Adam Laksman

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Fier hjir asjebleaft gjin bewurkings út oant de skriuwer mei de side klear is.



Adam Laksman
Big battle symbol.svg militêr
Adam Laksman troch in anonime Japanske keunstner
Adam Laksman troch in anonime Japanske keunstner
persoanlike bysûnderheden
namme folút Adam Kirillovitsj (Eriksoan) Laxman
nasjonaliteit Flag of Sweden.svg Sweedsk
berne 1766
stoarn 1806?
wurkpaad
yn tsjinst fan Flag of Russia.svg Ruslân
heechste rang Luitenant
oar wurk Untdekkingsreizger
off. webside gjin

Adam Kirillovitsj (Erikovitsj) Laxman (Russysk: Адам Кириллович (Эрикович) Лаксман) (1766 – 1806?) wie in Sweedsktalich Finlânsk militêr ofsier en ien fan de earste Russen dy't Japan besochten. As luitenant fan it Keizerlik Russysk leger krige er de opdracht om yn 1791 in ekspedysje nei Japan te lieden mei it doel om twa Japanske skipbreklingen te ruiljen foar hannelsoerienkomsten mei it Tokugawa-sjogunaat. Hy wie in soan fan Erik Laksman (1737-1796).

Ekspedysje nei Japan (1792)[bewurkje seksje | boarne bewurkje]

Daikokuya Kōdayū (大黒屋光太夫) en Isokichi (磯吉): de Japanske skipbreklingen dy't Adam Laxman yn 1792 werobrocht

Laxman lâne op Hokkaido yn oktober 1792 en moete dêr leden fan de Matsumae-clan, dy't belêstige wiene mei de ferdigening fan Japans noardlike grinzen. Oars as eardere bûtenlanners waard Laksman gastfrij ûnfongen. Dat feroare lykwols doe't er easke om de skipbreklingen persoanlik nei Edo (it Tokyo fan no) te bringen wat troch de Japanners as ûnfatsoenlik beskôge waard. Troepen út Edo stjoerd troch hege riedshear Matsudaira Sadanobu besochten Laxmans reis djipper Japan yn foar te kommen of te fertraagjen. Sy fregen him om oer it lân nei de stêd Matsumae, dat sûnder syn skip. Laxman wegere en krige lang om tastimming om ûnder marine-eskorte nei de haven fan Hakodate te silen; 450 Russen en Japanners rûne dêrwei nei it kastiel Matsumae.

Oddly, despite his impudence, Laxman was granted lavish Western-style living quarters; they were allowed to ignore the custom of kneeling and bowing before the Shogun's envoys, and were bestowed three samurai swords, and a hundred bags of rice. The envoys then explained to him that Japanese law demanded that all foreign trade be performed at Nagasaky. Since he had come to return castaways, they explained, he would be allowed to leave peacefully. When Laxman refused to leave without a trade agreement, he was provided with papers that explicitly stated that Nagasaki would welcome one Russian ship, that foreign ships were not allowed to dock anywhere else in the country, and that Christianity would also not be tolerated anywhere in Japan.[1]

Laxman gie feitlik mei lege hannen werom nei Ruslân, mar heechst wierskynlik wol mei de earste offisjele Japanske dokuminten dy't tastimming joegen om te hanneljen mei in lân oars as Sina of Nederlân (op Desjima).[2] In 1804–1805, nine years after Laxman's return to Russia, an attempt was made to trade at Nagasaki as part of the expedition around the world led by Adam Johann von Krusenstern, but the Russian ambassador Nikolai Rezanov was greeted with a lengthy dispatch from the Shogunate explaining that Japan was closed to foreign trade and demanding that they leave. After this major setback, the Tsarist government debated for many years the actual intention and meaning of the documents, and, leaving the opening of Japan to private entrepreneur explorers, ultimately failed to open Japan.

Keppeling om utens[bewurkje seksje | boarne bewurkje]

Boarnen, noaten en referinsjes[boarne bewurkje]

Boarnen, noaten en/as referinsjes:
  1. A. A. Preobrazhensky, “Pervoe Russkoe Posolstvo v Iaponiiu” ('De earste Russyske missy nei Japan'), Istoricheskii Arkhiv, vol. 7, no. 4, 1961, s. 115–148.
  2. George Alexander Lensen, “Early Russo-Japanese Relations”, The Far Eastern Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 1, November 1950, pp. 2–37, n.b. s. 17–22.